Origin of Urdu Language in India
In this newsletter we are able to discuss approximately the origin of Urdu language in India for the duration of the medieval age.
The origin of the Urdu language like maximum of different languages is quite difficult to understand. A variety of theories had been recommend by means of the students to give an explanation for the origin of the Urdu language.
Some of the prominent theories are as follows:
According to Muhammad Husain Azad, Urdu language changed into born due to grafting of Persian factors at the Brijbhash a, a dialect of western Hindi. This principle is hard to simply accept because the writer has presented too easy an cause of the Urdu. Brijbhasha, even though linguistically allied to the dialect spoken within the neighbourhood of Delhi, is pretty extraordinary in creation and morphology.
The 2d concept has been encouraged with the aid of Mahmud Sherwani who holds that the Urdu language turned into born due to the first contact between the Muslims and the Hindus after the conquest of Punjab and Sindh by using Mahmud Ghaznavi. He says that in the period of over 170 years when Ghaznavi rulers have been in career of Punjab, some of Persian, Turkish and Afghans came there and settled down in Punjab.
As a result of this close touch guessween the Punjabi speakme humans and the Persian talking humans, the two languages were given mingled up and resulted within the evolution of a brand new language. In short, Prof Sherwani holds that Urdu grew out of contact among Punjabi and Sindhi on the only hand and Persian alternatively.
He discusses the structure and morphology of the Urdu language and suggests a grammatical affinity between Punjabi language and the brand new language.
The 1/3 idea concerning the starting place of Urdu language has been supplied by using Dr. Masud Husain of Aligarh. He says that the Urdu language became developed due to the grafting of Persian language on Hariani, a language which became spoken in Delhi within the early days of Sultanate.
With the passage of the time, the Persian words and idioms have been so interwoven with Hariani, that the duality of the language was annihilated. Dr. Masud Husain also makes a comparative look at of the grammatical shape of Hariani and Urdu and attempts to show the affinity of the two languages.
Prof. Yusuf Hussain also appears to be inclined to accept this view and says that Delhi changed into ideally situated for the improvement of a artificial language. Dr. A L. Srivastava has additionally expressed the view that Urdu language, which changed into for a long time love poetry in urdu known as Dehlavi, need to had been related with the language spoken around Delhi instead of with Punjabi.
He further says that for a numerous hundcrimson years (from 1200 to 1700 A.D.) Urdu and western Hindi had been same. Certain scholars like Amir Khusrau who wrote on this language have been taken into consideration as poets of both Urdu in addition to Hindi.
These languages had not handiest a commonplace history and vocabulary however also an identical grammatical structure. One thing that is positive that the development of Urdu language become slow and took a few years earlier than it have become a suit car of expression by means of the instances of Amir Khusrau.
The language utilized by Khusrau and other writers has been claimed as Hindi in addition to Urdu by means of the scholars of the two languages. Amir Khusrau made liberal use of the Hindi words in his works particularly in his couplets and riddles.
Amir Khusrau known as the language used by him Hindawai or the Dehlavi. He composed ghazals etc. In mixed language with alternate hemistich’s in Persian and Hindi, which went a protracted manner in the improvement of Urdu language.
This fashion of the usage of combined languages is exceptional demonstrated from the following couplet of Khusrau:
Shabane hijran daraz chun zulf o ruze waslate cho ‘umr kotah
Saki Piya ko jo important na dekhun to kaise katon andheri ratain.
This fashion of writing mixed poetry became followed via other scholars additionally. For example Amir Hasan Ala Sijzi, a welt recognised Persian poet, also employed Hindi words in his ghazals Although Khusrau is taken into consideration to be a excellent poet of Persian language, he himself claimed that he wrote his poetry inside the Hindawi language.
In the preface to his 1/3 diwan, he says: “I have scattered amongst my pals some chapters of Hindawi poetry also, but I would be content material right here with an insignificant mention of this reality.” Again he says: ‘As I am a parrot of India question me something in Hindawi that I can also speak sweetly.”
Amir Khusrau is likewise taken into consideration because the first Muslim poet of Hindi language.
According to the well familiar traditions, it is said that Khusrau recited the subsequent cuplet, composed in pure Hindi verse, at the dying of Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Aulia: